In terms of production, bananas are the worldâ€™s 4th most important food crop, mostly grown and consumed in the tropical and subtropical zones. The crop is grown in more than 120 countries, with an annual world production of around 104 million tons; around a third each is produced in the African, Asia-Pacific, and Latin American and Caribbean regions.
About 87% of all the bananas grown worldwide is produced by small-scale farmers for local consumption as a food security crop, and for local markets than for international trade. They provide a staple food for millions of people, particularly in Africa.
Approximately 13% of worldwide banana production is destined for the export market. The banana fruit is extremely important as an export commodity especially in Latin America and Caribbean, which contribute over 83% of the total banana in the international market. The banana export industry is also the backbone of the economies of many Caribbean countries, and the crop plays a vital role in the social and political fabrics of the islands.
In Africa, only five countries namely, CÃ´te dâ€™Ivoire, Cameroon, Somalia, Ghana, and Cape Verde, export approximately 427,000 tons of banana and plantain. There are more than 500 banana varieties in the world, but the Cavendish is the most exported banana cultivar.
The bananaâ€™s ability to produce fruits all year round makes it an important food security crop and cash crop in the tropics.
Bananas and plantains supply more than 25% of the carbohydrate requirements for over 70 million people in Africa. East Africa is the largest banana-producing and consuming region in Africa with Uganda being the worldâ€™s second leading producer after India, with a total production of about 10.5 million tons. In some African countries such as Uganda the daily consumption of banana may exceed 1.6 kilogram per person, which is the highest in the world.
Nutritionally, fresh bananas contain 35% carbohydrates, 6-7% fiber, 1-2% protein and fat, and major elements such as potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, iron, and vitamins A, B6, and C. Bananas are also used to manufacture beer, wine, and other products and form an important part of the cultural life of many people.
FAO Agriculture Data. 2002. http://www.fao.org./ag.
FAOSTAT Agriculture Data. 2001 and 2004. http://apps.fao.org.
Robinson, J.C. 1996. Bananas and Plantains, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, 238 pp.
Tripathi, L., J.N. Tripathi, and Irie V.B. 2007. Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.): Transgenics and Biotechnology. Transgenic Plant Journal 1(1). pp 185-2001.
Thomas Dubois joined IITA in 2003 to manage the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)-funded regional biocontrol project for banana, based in Uganda. This project has now made significant progress: banana infected with certain strains of endophytic fungi grow more vigorously and are better protected against pests and diseases. The development of this novel â€œbioprotectionâ€ is an exciting research theme that has the potential to revolutionize current thinking on biocontrol. Current focus of this project is to optimize inoculation techniques and scale up activities with commercial producers of tissue-cultured (TC) plants as part of a recently funded Eastern African Programme and Research Network for Biotechnology, Biosafety and Biotechnology Policy Development (BIO-EARN) project in Kenya and Uganda.
In 2006, Thomas received the prestigious CGIAR Young Scientist Award. At present he is heading a BMZ project on improving market pathways for TC banana centered on commercial TC producers and nursery distribution centers. He is also spearheading the 2008 International Banana Conference in Mombasa, Kenya, as Chair of the Organizing Committee.
How did you come to IITA?
I studied bio-engineering first and then some foreign exchanges spurred my international ambitions. After my studies, in 1998, I was placed with IITA in Onne, southeast Nigeria. I absolutely fell in love with the then cowboy attitudes: nothing beats eating goat head, listening to Afropop in between oilrigs and blown up tankers! I liked the applied work, screening banana plants for nematode resistance, working under the supervision of Abdou Tenkouano and the late Paul Speijer. While I was at Onne, I was accepted at Cornell University to do my PhD studies in Insect Pathology. As I told Lukas Brader, the DG at that time, â€œI will be back.â€ After my PhD studies I was quickly involved in a fairly high-profile project with the United States Department of Agriculture, combating a devastating invasive insect species in the northern US; I traveled to China every year for prolonged periods of time. I toyed with the idea of entering Business School and tried to get into private industry. I settled with management consulting firms, using the Ivy League degree as leverage. I tried to get back into the CGIAR system and landed an 8-month stint with IITA in Uganda in 2003. This was a short project related to the use of endophytes, with no job security but ideal to get my foot in the door. I have been at IITA ever since.
What are some of your memorable experiences in research in the field or in the lab? I like the applied and hands-on work. You can get much more done with a large dedicated team of staff, sometimes with less access to good infrastructure and facilities. I had to play farm manager for more than a year, doing activities from supplying water, fuel, and satellite dishes to keep the station running, to chasing away cows from encroaching the research fields in my spare time.
What are your realizations on the job?
I have come to appreciate several important realizations. First of all comes focus. It is easy to be carried away and drift into the development aspect of things. We are first and foremost scientists, on the applied side of science, publishing our work through peer-reviewed journals. It should be up to partner organizations to feed high-tech science upstream or to implement the work downstream. So choosing the right partners is essential. Secondly, teamwork is important. I started to fully appreciate this fairly late. Competition is natural in low quantities but, by definition, has no place in an institution that aims to do Research to nourish Africa. By working synergistically as a team and sometimes reaching out to other â€œcompetitorâ€ organizations you would be surprised at what can be achieved in a short time and how the relationship can be swiftly turned into fruitful collaboration. Thirdly, at IITA, the sky seems to be the limit but sometimes you have to let go. One person simply cannot run two large international projects, write some more, fly to DR Congo to help with restructuring the agricultural sector, correct PhD theses, be a webmaster, and run a massive conference at the same time. My workload is insane but it is partly my fault.
What are your future plans?
In the immediate future, I would focus on my project on improving market pathways for TC banana centered on commercial TC producers and nursery distribution centers. Also, commercialization of the technology with private enterprisesâ€”this is what the BIO-EARN project is trying to do. At some point later, I hope to leave science and secure a managerial position with more job security as well. Deep down I know I am not a scientist â€œpure sangâ€. Moving on to the bigger scheme of things can be anything, ranging from research management, policy, advocacy, consultancy to donor relations.
Any advice for colleagues?
I am among the youngest at IITA so I should be receiving advice from others! A strong focus has been on mentoring students and I would hope that some colleagues would train more students. I have been supervising over 25 students in the last 5 years, both those from within Africa and European-based MSc students who do their research at IITA-Uganda. Benefits are manifold for them and IITA. Secondly, I think IITA folk could benefit if they â€œsellâ€ themselves a bit more, through radio, TV, websites, and the popular press. Benefits include changing donor conceptions and misconceptions, putting science in the forefront, and ultimately benefiting farmers. Thirdly, it has helped me to think a lot out of the box and be a generalist. I came as an entomologist with a title of â€œbiocontrol specialistâ€. Now I am running a socioeconomic project entirely focused on market pathways for banana seed systems. One could look out of the box for good private sector players or partners. This is essential, in my opinion, for long-term sustainability.
What is your dream for Africa?
I hope Africa will, at some point, be weaned off the many donor agencies, volunteering organizations, and NGOs that seem to be becoming a sustainable big-bucket business rather than a means to an end. A conducive climate for private sector development, together with good governance, is what I wish for sub-Saharan Africa.
Leena Tripathi was born and grew up in India. She gained a PhD in Plant Molecular Biology from the National Botanical Institute, Lucknow, after completing an MSc in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India.
She joined IITA in 2000 and worked first in Nigeria and currently in Uganda where her primary research focuses on the development of transgenic Musa spp. with disease and pest resistance. She has established strong links with national and regional partners, and advanced labs. She is also Guest Faculty at the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) for biosafety courses.
Please describe your research work.
Since 2000, I have been developing transgenic banana and plantain resistant to pests and diseases. Currently, I am leading projects on producing bananas resistant to Xanthomonas wilt using the transgenic approach. I am also involved in capacity building in biotechnology and biosafety. I have trained several African scientists in genetic transformation and tissue culture. I have assisted in building capacity on genetically modified organism (GMO) detection and biosafety in East Africa by training students and national scientists on banana transformation and molecular biology. And I would like to acknowledge the strong financial support from donors such as Gatsby Charitable Foundation, African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF), US Agency for International Development, and the UK Department for International Development (DFID); and IITA of course.
Why did you choose to work in Africa? Africa has missed the Green Revolution but should not miss the Gene Revolution. For this it needs human capacity in biotechnology that will help to accomplish things that conventional plant breeding could never do. The public needs to be better informed about the importance of biotechnology in food production.
What is the importance of transgenic technologies in banana improvement? Many pests and diseases significantly affect banana cultivation and cause crop losses worldwide. Development of disease-resistant banana by conventional breeding remains difficult for various technical reasons. Transgenic technologies are the most cost-effective approach. There are enormous potentials for genetic manipulation using appropriate transgenes from other plants to achieve objectives in a far shorter time. It may also be possible to incorporate other characteristics such as drought tolerance, thus extending the geographical spread of production.
How do you demystify or explain a concept like biotechnology to lay audiences? People think that biotechnology is just genetic modification (GM) technology. Contrary to its name, biotechnology is not a single technology; it is a group of technologies that uses biological systems, living organisms, or their derivatives, to make or modify products or processes for specific use. This includes recombinant DNA technology, genetic engineering, GM foods, biopharmaceuticals, bioremediation, and more.
Biotechnology is not new; it has flourished since prehistoric times. When the first human beings realized that they could plant their own crops and breed their own animals, they learned to use biotechnology. The discovery that fruit juices fermented into wine, or that milk could be converted into cheese or yogurt, or that beer could be made by fermenting solutions of malt and hops, started the study of biotechnology. When the first bakers found that they could make soft, spongy bread rather than a firm, thin cracker, they were acting as fledgling biotechnologists.
â€œModernâ€ biotechnology derives from techniques discovered only in the last 20 years. These include the ability to cut and stitch DNA, to move DNA and genes from one organism to another, and to persuade the new gene in this new organism, that is to make new proteins. Genetic engineering technology is a branch of modern biotechnology and involves the transfer of gene(s) from one organism to another to create a new species of crops, animals, or microorganism. Modern biotechnology has offered opportunities to produce more nutritious and better tasting foods, higher crop yields, and plants that are naturally protected from disease and insects.
What have you learned on the job?
I joined IITA as a biotechnologist with plenty of experience in research but not in the field. Working at IITA has been overwhelmingly positive. I have gained experience in both research and administration. I have learned to appreciate the benefits of working in multidisciplinary and multicultural teams and of linking research to farmers in the field. I can now write successful project proposals, get funding, lead projects, and disseminate results to national partners and finally to farmers. Good communication skills are essential for successful research. One needs to be a good team worker and establish strong and successful partnerships as we are doing at IITA-Uganda. When I was relocated here, I realized the situation was very different. IITA in Ibadan has facilities but in Uganda, IITA facilities are based within a national partner, the National Agricultural Research Organization. I wanted to learn quickly from the experiences of others so I talked to colleagues about their work and successes and to national scientists about their expectations. I learned quickly.
Any advice for IITA colleagues? IITA scientists should be committed to provide strong leadership in the key research areas to ensure scientific excellence and the quality of products. They should work applying â€œnew scienceâ€ to enhance food security and income generation for resource-poor farmers.
What are your future research plans? I want to evaluate the disease resistance of banana varieties in the field, evaluate transgenic plants in the confined field for efficacy against Xanthomonas wilt disease, with the University of Leeds develop nematode-resistant plantains, and develop varieties with multiple disease resistance by integrating several genes with different targets or modes of action into the plant genome. I also want to train more national staff/students to build capacity in the region.
What is your formula for success?
The addition and sometimes multiplication of five key elements: vision, strategy, confidence, hard work, and learning. I am focused and have a clear vision for my research, based on project outputs. I frame strategy with clear goals. I follow the strategy with my group members and work hard to achieve the goals. At each step I identify problems and learn to solve or avoid them so that the group moves smoothly and fast to achieve the goals. I set the goals for my group at the start of each year. Everyone works extra hours to achieve group goals. I do not hesitate to seek advice and suggestions from experts, superiors, and collaborators to move things efficiently. Support is very important. I have benefited from support and encouragement from my superiors, higher IITA management, donors, collaborators, and from family. IITA nominated me for the CGIAR Young Scientist award in 2005 and gave me their Top Scientist award, based on my research achievements.
Plants, like people, need healthcare. But in Africa, where agriculture is dominated by smallholders, farmers do not have access to reliable plant health advice and management services.
Many farmers rely on extension workers and researchers from national and international organizations for such needs. And such help is not always readily or quickly available.
This is why IITA and its partners are developing the capacity of national agricultural research and extension systems (NARES) in research, disease surveillance, diagnostics, and deployment of control options. A good example is in banana: when national partners at the Lâ€™Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Burundi (ISABU) in Central Africa needed help in diagnosing and culturing the pathogen that was attacking banana, they turned to IITA for assistance. ISABU wanted to develop local capacity to independently make diagnoses, culture Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW) from diseased banana plant samples, and provide treatment advice.
At that time, IITA was already working on BXW in Burundi under the Crop Crisis Control Project (C3P), managed by the Catholic Relief Services (CRS). IITA and CRS liaised closely to develop a regional training course, for national partners from Burundi, Rwanda, and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to learn new techniques, while encouraging greater collaboration among scientists.
The training was attended by participants from extension and research, universities, and a regional organization. Trainers came from IITA, CABI and Global Plant Clinic (GPC, see box), and Central Science Laboratory (CSL).
Training covered new methods for surveillance and vigilance of all banana diseases. Feedback from the participants highlighted the need for sustained training and the importance of introducing a system of mobile plant clinics to effectively link farmers and transfer knowledge.
The mobile plant clinics initiative was developed by CABI UK as part of GPC, led by Eric Boa and has been tried and tested across the world. Under the umbrella of Mobile Plant Clinics and GPC, IITA had collaborated on initiating clinics in Rwanda, Cameroon, Sierra Leone, and Benin and providing training in diagnostics and surveillance in Uganda, DRC, and Burundi.
â€œTraining, however, is just the tip of the iceberg. It is important to consolidate capacity building in diagnostic techniques and to ensure that people adopt new methods with confidence and then use them regularly,â€ said Fen Beed, IITA’s plant pathologist based in Uganda. â€œIsolating and identifying plant bacteria require practice as does the conduct of participatory disease surveys. When such methods are reliably deployed, the national programs could significantly improve the reliable detection of BXW and other disease outbreaks.â€
Knowing where a disease occurs allows extension staff to target particular areas and plan control programs. This requires careful organization and marshalling of resources. Although IITA already has effective recommendations for managing BXW, it lacks mechanisms for presenting them to farmers and monitoring their uptake. Further effort is needed to implement training that emphasizes direct action to help farmers.
In their after-training report, Beed and colleagues said that â€œEffective extension depends on sound intelligence about disease distribution and the damage it causes. National governments need to understand the risks posed to new areas and the actions required to control disease through sound research planning and identification of best management strategies.â€
Beed and colleagues forwarded this blueprint for managing risk and reducing banana disease losses to ensure success of a plant healthcare service managed by national programs.
It is important to undertake systematic and comprehensive surveys of banana growing areas to get an update on the distribution of BXW and control strategies being used by growers. The surveys provide the opportunity to determine spread and identify reasons why control strategies may not have been adopted. Where control methods have been deployed their socioeconomic impact can be quantified.
The extensive surveys will assess incidence and severity of BXW and other banana pests and diseases.
Systematic and quantitative surveillance of banana-growing areas begin with participatory surveys, a promising technique for assessing large numbers of growers quickly. Survey results can identify sites where permanent sample plots (PSP) would be established for more intensive assessments. PSP sites should be regularly monitored for disease incidence, severity, and efficacy of control methods. Data produced can determine disease spread and help to evaluate socioeconomic impact and deployment of control options.
The C3P project made huge strides towards developing databases on the spread of BXW and the influence of farmersâ€™ practices to control this disease. These databases can be further updated with information from the surveys and with data generated from pilot sites.
The databases could be linked to regional databases of climate, growing conditions, topography, farmer demographics, and agricultural practices (e.g., produced by the CIALCA project and many others). This allows use of the databases for predicting spread and risk due to disease at various geographic scales.
The next step is to establish and operate an extensive system of mobile plant clinics in targeted areas. Training courses for plant doctors are available and both DR Congo and Rwanda already have some experience in running clinics. The clinics concentrate on giving advice and gathering “intelligence” about banana problems, providing information on disease control, and offering services for other crops and diseases. This is important since farmers rarely grow bananas in isolation of other crops.
Once clinics are established and their benefits realized they can be self-sustaining and can provide a routine service to farmers and extension officers.
There is a need to ensure that participating laboratories can isolate and confirm the presence of pathogens that cause BXW and other diseases of banana. Field staff should learn how to collect diseased plant samples for sending to diagnostic centers. Diagnostic centers will be established in the region and linkages developed with advanced research institutes (ARI) to provide technical backstopping for disease diagnostics using, for example, molecular techniques.
In addition, for BXW, rapid diagnostic field-based kits will be fully tested for accuracy to confirm the presence of the disease. Standard operating procedures for laboratory methods should be introduced to ensure consistent results and interpretation of results. The responsibilities of staff from national, regional, and ARI laboratories should be identified and links among them strengthened to create and nurture a network of expertise available to all.
Data produced from the three activities can be used to publish new disease reports and develop pest risk analysis (PRA) documents for each banana disease in the region. PRA documents are crucial as they summarize all current information and increase awareness of disease recognition, distribution, control and risks. They must be routinely updated with new information and shared across the region to alert stakeholders of potential risks. This can lead to the deployment of preemptive disease control strategies before a disease epidemic breaks out.
Monitoring and evaluation
Detailed assessment of the progress and linkages should be undertaken. The increased capacity in laboratory and field techniques should be shared by project members through training. The support of IITA and the GPC in diagnostics, surveillance, and vigilance techniques encourages national and regional cooperation and use of new methodologies. Empowering scientists and extension staff and making them accountable for their actions is a powerful way to encourage sustainable development and to promote trade.
The benefit of creating a knowledge network for banana diseases in the region is clear. This network can be expanded through linkages with scientists and the private sector and key extension, research, and government staff from Burundi, DRC, Rwanda, and regional organizations.
The International Plant Diagnostic Network (IPDN) was set up in response to NARES’ surveys that highlighted the lack of diagnostic capacity in much of Africa and in recognition that this directly hindered the adoption of appropriate and effective integrated pest management programs and therefore international trade. IPDN has been established in collaboration with IITA in East and West Africa to increase communication and data sharing. Software for digital imaging and diagnosis, information management, and access to disease management recommendations provides a platform for enhanced diagnosis and communication between laboratory staff and experts across the world. Improved diagnostics tools and protocols have been developed and tested. This has been combined with training programs to enhance technical capacity and increase networking among diagnosticians in East and West Africa.
Initiatives such as IPDN can benefit by collaboration with similar internet-based initiatives in Africa such as the East Africa Phytosanitary Information Committee (EAPIC). EAPIC is linked to FAOâ€™s International Plant Portal to provide posting of plant pests for each respective country, which now includes Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The plant pest list helps in developing harmonized border inspection protocols, which support capacity building efforts in plant pest survey, identification, and communication systems, such as IPDN.
A follow-on project with these components that combines good science, effective surveillance, and proven advisory services could strengthen the contribution of extension and research to increase food security, income generation, and improved trade in Africa. It also highlights support required from national and regional organizations, governments, and donors. These include local training for diagnostic techniques and expansion of participatory disease surveys and strengthening of disease vigilance through the establishment of mobile plant clinics.
â€Addressing all these considerations will contribute significantly towards providing a service to support farmers and trade that would move away from the current scenario of â€˜fire-fightingâ€™ diseases to providing preemptive control (see Figure 1),â€ concluded Beed.
Global Plant Clinics
The CABI Bioscience Global Plant Clinic (GPC) provides a comprehensive diagnostic and advisory service for disease problems on all tropical crops. The Service is unique in its global operation and the range of plant diseases it handles. CABI Bioscience has been identifying plant diseases for over 90 years and other key partners in GPC include Rothamstead Research and Central Science Laboratories. The Global Plant Clinic gives expert advice on the interpretation and application of diagnostic results drawing on extensive international experience in a wide range of crops and information from CAB International’s award-winning Crop Protection Compendium.
The GPC has initiated a series of mobile plant health clinics that offer regular and reliable advice on all plant health problems affecting any crop. These clinics are run by plant â€œdoctorsâ€, many of whom are agronomists or extension workers, who work for existing, grassroots organizations.
The clinics are not a technology but an advisory service. They link diagnostic labs with extension workers (plant doctors) and provide regulatory bodies in plant health with up-to-date information on current priorities by clinic â€˜area of influenceâ€™. Such clinics have little direct expense. In the long term they need public investment and private support (from farmers or input suppliers such as those responsible for improved varieties or even fertilizer).
According to GPC head Dr Eric Boa, â€œFarmers benefit from advice at clinics: they preempt new problems and avert losses by quick action; reduce pesticide use; and reduce losses and save money by giving good or better recommendations for managing a problem. On vigilance/surveillance, clinics identify current problems affecting priority problems in an area.â€
In banana, the most recent disease outbreak due to banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) was first reported to move from Ethiopia to Uganda by regional scientists and was subsequently confirmed by the GPC in Uganda in 2001. As the disease spread within Uganda and relentlessly across the region research programs led by CRS, IITA, and other national scientists tracked its movement into Burundi, DRC, Rwanda, Tanzania, Kenya, and the causal agent was confirmed by GPC.
BXW is one of several damaging diseases in East Africa and the demand for better surveillance and vigilance through mobile plant clinics has been widely expressed. The deployment of control options through clinics was based upon methods used to control a similar disease of banana caused by another bacterium. These primarily consist of the use of disease-free planting material and farmers tools and the removal of male flower buds to prevent infection from insect vectors.
Bananas are an important crop for global trade and nutrition where they are intensively cultivated, but few efforts exist to breed superior bananas. One of the reasons for this is that humans have intensively â€œselectedâ€ against seeded bananas and it is difficult or impossible to pollinate many banana varieties and successfully produce seeds.
Many of the most important banana varieties are triploid, which means that they carry an extra copy of each chromosome compared to the normal diploid. Being a triploid means that it is difficult for normal chromosome pairing and segregation to make fertile eggs or pollen, which results in most triploids being nearly sterile. Sterile bananas are great for people who donâ€™t like to crack their teeth on banana seeds, but mean that bananas have to be multiplied via vegetative propagation, similar to propagation of potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, and selected varieties of other fruit trees or ornamental species.
Gardeners are familiar with â€œseed potatoes,â€ small potato tubers that are planted to produce a potato crop. Bananas do not form tubers; new plants derive from â€œsuckersâ€ that emerge from the lower banana stem (corm). These suckers can be uprooted and used to plant new banana plants. Similar to potato tubers, these suckers were a part of the original mother plant, which means that they potentially carry whatever disease pathogens or pests had infested the mother plant. Therefore, banana suckers are one of the main means of transport and spread of certain disease-causing agents, including important fungi, bacteria, and viruses.
Nematodes and pests can also hitchhike on banana suckers to infest the new crop. Not only does such hitchhiking result in early infection/infestation of new banana plants in a farmerâ€™s field, but transporting long distances may help introduce a new disease or pest problem in a new location. This dual hazard of reduced yield potential of already infected planting material that may introduce new pests and diseases emphasizes the need for superior disease-free planting material produced through a â€œseed systemâ€ designed to minimize the risks of spreading pathogens and pests.
The traditional means of obtaining banana planting material (â€œseedâ€) is to acquire suckers from oneâ€™s own banana garden, from a neighbor, or from a more distant source. This method served to spread common varieties around the world and to multiply them in their new locations. This system can be modified to produce more banana suckers or shoots by manipulating banana corms to allow more buds to sprout. One such method that is described here is called macropropagation. A higher tech procedure to rapidly produce many plants in just a few generations of propagation is called tissue culture. In tissue culture, plants are first surface sterilized and then grown in aseptic culture in test tubes using an artificial growth medium based on a gelling agent like agar. The tender tissue-cultured plants can then be planted in the field after rooting and hardening under protected conditions.
Seed systems for producing clean planting material can be operated at various levels of technology and efficiency. In some cases, plant health could be improved by merely raising the awareness of the negative impact of planting â€œsickâ€ suckers. Where infected plants look visibly different from healthy plants, either because of reduced vigor or visual disease symptoms in infected plants, the propagator could practice negative selection against â€œsickâ€ plants or positive selection for â€œhealthyâ€ plants (or both). Such plants could be multiplied faster by applying a rapid propagation method such as macropropagation. However, while low-tech and affordable for farmers, such a system does not eliminate problems that cannot be detected by visual observation. Unfortunately, many diseases and pests fall into this category for at least part of their infection cycle.
For crops such as cereals, seed certification systems were developed to assure varietal purity, and later expanded to include freedom from weed seeds and seed-transmitted pathogens. Since most pathogens are seed-transmissible for vegetatively-propagated crops like potato or banana, disease management is the major focus of most seed potato certification programs and banana multiplication programs. Modern technology has provided diagnostic tests to detect significant pathogens. These tests are similar to those used in modern laboratories to diagnose human diseases, and can be expensive. For this reason, it is more efficient to test a small number of plants and multiply those that were negative for all pathogens tested in the battery of diagnostic tests.
It is possible to use tissue culture to efficiently and rapidly multiply plants that tested â€œcleanâ€ in the pathogen testing. Most potatoes eaten in the Western world are just a few field generations removed from tissue-cultured plants used to produce â€œseed potatoesâ€ in screened glasshouses to start the seed production cycle. Similarly, most dessert bananas in the global export trade are from plants originally propagated in tissue culture from plants that tested clean for known banana diseases. A modified form of tissue culture can also be used to eliminate pathogens from plants that did not test clean, after which they can be propagated to produce â€œseedâ€ planting material. There is great potential to improve the health of banana plantations in the developing world through increased use of this technology.
Tissue culture is the process of growing plants that have been surface sterilized and planted in test tubes or similar containers in sterile medium that contains all the nutrients they need to grow. This is almost always done in indoor laboratory facilities and the medium also contains the sugars needed to grow, since there isnâ€™t enough light for photosynthesis.
Sanitation is extremely important, since a single mold spore is enough to contaminate a test tube. Tissue-cultured plants are generally tested for pathogens before commencing the multiplication cycle so that infected plants are not multiplied. The small banana plantlets produce small suckers that can be detached and planted as new plants, or an experienced technician can cut sections that contain buds that will grow. Extra shoots can sometimes be induced by cutting through the growing points so that multiple plants develop from single buds. This process can be repeated every 5-8 weeks so that a single plant can produce many new plantlets in a relatively short period of time.Bananas are sometimes unstable in tissue culture and mutant versions can develop. For this reason, most multiplication labs try to limit the number of multiplication cycles before renewing their cultures from field plants observed to have all the correct traits for that variety.
When tissue-cultured plants are rooted in soil, hardened, and then planted back in the field, they can be more susceptible to some pests and diseases than the original plant was. To restore natural levels of resistance, these plants can be reinfected with the endophyte microorganisms that normally coexist with bananas, similar to the gut bacteria that are important for human intestinal health (see related article on endophytes).
Macropropagation falls somewhere between tissue culture and traditional systems of distributing suckers. In macropropagation, large suckers from healthy banana plants are removed and the roots and soft stem portion (pseudostem) of the sucker are cut away to expose the buds of the corm (the hard stem portion at the base of the sucker). The bare corms are briefly dipped in boiling water to kill any nematodes (micro-worms) that were not removed when cutting off roots. Small cuts are made through the buds to encourage development of multiple sprouts from each bud. The apical (top) bud is often removed because it can suppress development of lower buds. The corm is then covered with moist wood shavings and incubated in a small plastic-covered chamber for a few weeks to encourage shoot development.
Primary shoots can be rooted and used as planting material, or cut off and the growing point again cut to promote additional shooting. Shoots that develop are broken off with a bit of hard stem and roots attached, placed in small nursery bags in a similar high humidity chamber for a few days to allow root development, and finally moved to a nursery for hardening. Hardened plants can be planted in the field, similar to suckers or hardened plants from tissue culture.
A major drawback of macropropagation is that rustic or low-tech methods of detecting pathogens have not been developed, so this method can propagate infected plants if they were chosen as mother plants. Both macropropagated plants and tissue-cultured plants have less food reserves than suckers and require more care (compost/manure, watering) after planting than suckers. Careful siting of â€œmother gardensâ€ established from tissue-cultured plants in clean areas may be the best way to produce suckers for macropropagation.
Traditional seed systems have produced most of the nearly 6 billion banana and plantain plants in Africa currently spread over nearly 4 million hectares of farm and gardens. Many of these are in excellent condition; others have become infected with one or more banana diseases and need to be replaced. Since new banana diseases have been introduced to Africa in the last century, and many diseases have increased in distribution and prevalence, greater care needs to be practiced to multiply â€œhealthy seedâ€.
Breeding programs are nearly ready to release new varieties with resistance to some of the disease problems.
A combination of new and old seed systems can improve the overall health of new plantings by providing healthy plants of both preferred older varieties and resistant new varieties.
IITA’s research on macropropagation is supported by the Directorate General for Development Cooperation (Belgium) and Agricultural Productivity Enhancement Program (APEP-USAID) Uganda Agricultural Productivity Enhancement Project.
In Uganda, the local word for food is matooke, which is what the Ugandans call the green banana, their staple food. Nowhere is banana eaten in such a scale as in this East African nation of 31 million.
Ugandans reportedly eat, on average, more than a quarter of a kilogram of banana in a day, or in some areas, 450 kilograms per year! That’s a lot of bananas.
Bananas are as important to the Great Lakes region as rice is to East or Southeast Asia. They are a valuable source of vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates or calories; they are the primary source of income for 16 million smallholder farmers in Uganda; and they play a central role in the sociocultural fabric of the country.
About one-third of the total global banana production comes from sub-Saharan Africa where millions of subsistence farmers and consumers depend on the crop as a staple food. Bananas are easy to grow especially in the Great Lakes region where growing conditions for the crop are ideal.
But banana production in the region is being threatened by a complex of pest and disease problems, including Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense), black leaf streak or sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis), viruses, banana weevils (Cosmopolites sordidus), and nematodes (e.g., Radopholus similis). The most serious threat at the moment is banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW, Xanthomonas vasicola pv. musacearum), which could devastate the banana industry in East Africa. These pests and diseases damage the banana plants, cause yield loss, and eventually food insecurity and loss of livelihoods.
With the food security and livelihood of millions of farmers at stake, science and industry meet to save the crop and develop technologies to make production more sustainable. One technology involves the rapid, mass propagation of more robust bananas using endophyte-enhanced tissue culture,â€ said Thomas Dubois, biocontrol specialist and nematologist based in Uganda, who leads the team of IITA scientists that helped develop the technology.
Tissue culture is not a new technology. Tissue-cultured banana is the norm in the rest of the world. Commercial tissue culture laboratories are beginning to emerge across East Africa to satisfy the rapidly rising demand for healthy planting material.
Tissue culture banana plants made in specialized private-sector laboratories are healthy and can grow faster than traditional plants. They are also ideal for establishing large plantations, which are then uniform, enabling better planning for harvests and marketing.
Tissue culture produces clean plantlets without disease but also without a natural defense system. They are quite sensitive to the relatively harsh conditions in the East African fields, including attack by pests and diseases, and low soil fertility. The smallholder fields are burdened with biotic pest pressures and abiotic constraints, and the small-scale farmers do not practice essential high-input field maintenance. Thus, tissue culture adoption in Africa faces a â€œbarrierâ€.
This is where IITA came to the rescue. â€œEndophytesâ€ is a general term for naturally occurring microorganisms inside the plant that protect it from pests and diseases, and that enhance plant growth. Every single individual plant species, including banana, contains endophytes. They can be used as a natural form of control. Introducing endophytes in plants during propagation is like immunizing them. Plants inoculated or â€œvaccinatedâ€ with endophytes become resistant to pests or diseases.
Army against pests and diseases
The endophytes become part of the planting material before the young tissue culture plants are sold to farmers. Once inside, the endophytes go to work, boosting the plantâ€™s immune systemâ€”so long as they get there first, before the pathogen.
Thus, farmers are provided with a weapon to fight the banana weevils and nematodes, which abound in the soil and which are transferred by farmer-to-farmer contact through exchange of infected planting material.
IITA, through its station in Kampala, Uganda, developed the endophyte technology to produce robust pest- and disease-free banana planting material, in collaboration with various national and international partners. Research on this technology started in 1997 with funding from the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ).
IITA isolated nonpathogenic strains of endophytes belonging to the Fusarium family from healthy plants growing under high levels of pest and disease pressure. Institute scientists developed a rapid, easy, and low-cost laboratory screening protocol for testing the numerous endophyte strains obtained against the banana weevil and the burrowing nematode. They also devised a more efficient technique to mass produce the best strains, and introduce them into the tissue-cultured plantlets. The endophyte-enhanced plants are then grown in screenhouses and in farmersâ€™ fields to assess their performance against target pests.
Using endophytes as biological control agents offers several advantages. When endophytes enter the plants first, they get a head start over the other microorganisms, and once they are established, other microorganisms would offer less competition. Because the endophytes are already in the plantlets when they are transplanted, control can be targeted using low levels or doses, and performance is consistent. Using endophytes also makes it easier to control cryptic pests such as the banana weevil and the burrowing nematode, which are embedded within plant tissues.
As an off-shoot of work on endophytes, IITA-Uganda scientists realized that endophytes circumvent many of the barriers associated with conventional biopesticides. This has spurred novel research in using conventional biopesticides, such as Beauveria bassiana, as artifical endophytes in seed systems. B. bassiana worldwide is the most researched and commercialized fungal biopesticide against a variety of insect pests.
Laboratory and screenhouse studies have revealed the great potential of this entomopathogenic fungus for use against the banana weevil. However, impractical field delivery methods and high costs associated with its application prevent its use and commercialization in banana fields.
IITAâ€™s research also showed that B. bassiana can â€œcolonizeâ€ the internal banana tissues for at least four months and that B. bassiana-enhanced plants reduced larval damage by more than 50%. It kills the damaging insect stages inside the plant; it is protected from adverse biotic and abiotic factors; little inoculum is required, greatly reducing cost. Farmers do not need to apply the biological control organism themselves, as the technology is easily transferable to a commercial tissue culture producer.
But IITAâ€™s research-for-development work does not end there. How does IITA make endophyte-treated plantlets available to farmers, the ultimate users of the technology, as a ready-to-plant product at low cost?
Confluence of science and industry
The Institute has established strategic alliances with several private and public sector entities to develop international public goods. It leads the research effort on endophyte-enhanced tissue culture technology, and a commercial tissue culture entity and a private biocontrol company handle the formulation, distribution, application, and storage of the plantlets. In the process, IITA and its partners are helping commercialize the banana industry in East Africa.
Endophyte-enhanced banana tissue culture research is undertaken with research partners that include the University of Bonn, Germany; the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO), Uganda; the University of Pretoria, South Africa; Makerere University, Uganda; Wageningen University, the Netherlands; the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium; and the Biologische Bundesanstalt fur Land-und Forstwirtschaft, Germany.
The work though is not confined to banana production in Africa. Bioversity International, in collaboration with IITAâ€™s German partners, is testing endophyte-enhanced tissue culture with large-scale banana producers in Costa Rica, using Latin American endophyte strains.
Since IITA does not have the in-house capability to undertake large-scale endophyte-based research in its facilities, the Institute partnered with several private and public organizations involved in tissue culture: Agro-Genetic Technologies (AGT), a commercial tissue culture laboratory in Uganda; Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) and RealIPM, a biopesticide company in Kenya.
An exploratory and collaborative effort to produce more robust tissue culture plantlets as research material has developed into a synergistic partnership that bridged upstream research and downstream application. On the other hand, linking up with large-scale tissue culture producers in Uganda and Kenya have helped refine and move the technology from the lab to the farmers themselves.
Through collaboration, endophyte-enhanced technology is now being tested in farmersâ€™ fields in East and Central Africa. The technology enables the farmers to switch from subsistence to income generation, and more importantly to reach and create markets.
Following the research-for-development model, IITA and its partners realized that engaging and mobilizing the community of farmers is essential for the technology to succeed and gain wider adoption.
IITA saw the value of harmonizing public-private sector collaboration at the early stages of the project. It has adopted this approach in its R4D work in Africa, and is promoting its application in technology transfer work in other areas of research, mandate crops, and commodities.
Organic agriculture provides significant market opportunities for commercial agriculture globally.
Organic food markets grew at tremendous rates during the 1990s, encouraging organic food production throughout the world. Although this growth rate has slowed down a bit, and the niche market for organic food is less than 4% of the European or North American food markets, the prospects of high prices and a stable demand still make organic food markets attractive for producers.
Commercial and certified organic farming is not uncommon in Africa that has 19% of the worldâ€™s organic farms. Main organic products include fruits and vegetables, cotton, coffee, tea, and herbs and spices.
Bananas are the most widely traded fruits worldwide. Recent trends in organic food demand in developed countries have made organic bananas an attractive crop in developing countries. In fact, trade in organic bananas increased during the late 1990s and early 2000s at a quite significant rate, from about 30,000 tons in 1998 to about 150,000 tons in 2003. Even so, organic bananas represent only a small share (1%) in the world banana trade.
About two-thirds of the organic bananas are traded to the European Union (EU), where they constitute about 2.5% of the banana market, a significantly larger percentage than on the world market. The other main target is North America, and, to a much lesser extent, Japan.
The entire trade in organic bananas comes from countries in Latin America. Africa and Asia are geographically closer to the EU and Japan but this does not seem to be relevant to organic banana trade.
Conventionally grown bananas are mainly traded from Latin America onto the world market, with minor shares coming from West and Central Africa (WCA) and Asia. North America sources its banana supply exclusively from Latin America. Europe imports bananas from Latin America, WCA (CÃ´te d’Ivoire and Cameroon). Japan imports bananas from Latin America and Asia (Philippines and China).
East and Central Africaâ€”in particular Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi, as one of the largest banana-producing regions worldwideâ€”does not feature to any significant extent in these statistics.
Suppliers of organic bananas are basically the same as those of conventional bananas, Latin American countries. Organic banana production and trade follow conventional production and trade, with suppliers such as the African or Asian producers lagging behind.
Although this is a large market, bananas, in particular conventionally grown bananas, seem to have had the peak of their market growth during the 1990s. Significant volume growth is expected to occur only in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Elsewhere, volume growths are expected only to follow population developments, to a lesser extent increases in income and falling prices. While volume growths reached on average 4% in the 90s, they will reach only about 2.5% annually until 2010. Prices are expected to decline with increased liberalization of banana markets, in particular the EU. Overall, markets are considered saturated.
Africa has not been able to take up production and trade opportunities on the global banana market, with a few exceptions such as Cameroon and CÃ´te d’Ivoire. However, more recently, there are efforts under way to try and enter the global banana markets in both the conventional and niche segments.
Conventionally grown banana production in Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi is hardly competitive with that from other regions because of its small scale and low-input production. These lead to relatively low yields and consequently high production costs. Scattered small-scale production makes assembly and packaging a long and costly effort, with high postharvest losses as a consequence.
Transport routes are long and road and sea transport to possible final destinations often take longer than the shelf-life of bananas, so that the freight will decay before reaching markets in Europe or Asia.
Consequently, the only exports of conventionally grown bananas from East Africa to Europe go by airfreight, often as by-cargo with higher value products. In Europe they supply only specialty markets, such as cooking bananas or plantain for African expatriates, who do not make up a significant market share. The problem can be quantified by comparing production and trade costs of conventionally grown bananas from Latin America and Uganda (Table 1).
The reasons for Ugandaâ€™s disadvantages on the European market are obvious: High raw material costs. Land and labor-intensive small-scale production, losses from pests and diseases, and the lack of fertilizer already affect primary production adversely. Gathering, packaging, and transport from the small farms through many intermediaries impose a large amount of additional costs.
The transport of the material to the seaports (the nearest is Mombasa in Kenya) and the long distance to Europe add further disadvantages. Normally, the distance from production to market in terms of days would exceed even the 20-day shelf-life of fresh bananas.
Organic bananas from Uganda are cheaper at the farmgate than Ecuadorian bananas (Table 1), and although handling costs and airfreight are still high, and the final margins in retail are lower than those from Ecuadorian bananas, there is still a significant profit margin at the retail level. This makes the export of organic bananas from Uganda to the EU by airfreight far more attractive than the export of conventional bananas by seaâ€”if the latter becomes technically possible.
This opportunity should be the same for more Central African countries, such as Rwanda and Burundi, but also for West African countries such as Cameroon and CÃ´te d’Ivoire. What mainly contributes to this opportunity is the high value of organic bananas on the European markets, and the opportunities arising from this to export these high-value fruits to Europe by plane.
However, even if organic bananas (or any other organic fruit or agricultural product) represent an opportunity, some challenges exist which have to be considered. Poor quality and badly maintained roads, vehicles, rail links, and rolling stock all pose problems for transportation. Lack of refrigeration, erratic power supplies, poor communications, underdeveloped banking and credit systems, and, sometimes, political and economic instability, all raise serious and often insuperable problems.
In addition, the lack of local certification bodies imposes significant constraints and risks to organic agriculture in Africa. Certifiers have to be flown in and they increase the costs of organic production. So far, only Tunisia has its own European-standard certification bodies. The costs of certification have to be seen as investment costs and hence risks. If the investment costs are not amortized by the revenues, e.g., in the case of harvest failures or a sudden shortfall of market outlets, investments in certification are lost and hence, the farmers are liable to a significant investment risk. Similar constraints apply to the establishment and sustainability of commercial organic agriculture elsewhere in Africa, and also to the production and trade in organic bananas.
In summary, these constraints are:
â€¢Â Â Â Lack of experience in intensive organic production
â€¢Â Â Â Lack of experience in handling and exporting fresh produce
â€¢Â Â Â Lack of professional management
â€¢Â Â Â Diseconomies of scale in exporting small quantities, e.g., for test exports
â€¢Â Â Â Poor communication between foreign importers and exporters
â€¢Â Â Â Poor negotiation skills and judgment of exporters
â€¢Â Â Â Lack of familiarity with international markets, including knowledge of the organic market place overseas
â€¢Â Â Â Lack of governmental support for exports
Organic banana production has its advantages, in particular for some Central and Eastern African producers, as markets are high value and stable in Europe and the US, while conventional banana markets are stagnating. Yet it is clear that there are a number of prerequisites for entry to the markets. Good marketing linkages and marketing skills for producers and marketers are at the top. Investments in certification have to be facilitated, in particular for small producers or producer groups.
Both physical infrastructure (roads) and political frameworks in Africa have to be favorable if organic production and exports are to be sustainable. Markets, although attractive at the moment, are competitive, probably limited, and probably highly income-elastic and thus sensitive to economic distortions on the demand side. This also means that oversupply has to be avoided and in the long run, cost reduction will be necessary to successfully compete in organic markets.
FAO. 2004. Statistical databases. www.fao.org.
Fischer, C. 2004. Demand for bananas in the European Union, with special focus on Germany. Research report, Bonn.
Mwadime, S. 2004. Private sector developments. Paper presented on the conference “Markets to raise incomes for poor farmers in Africa”, organized by the Rockefeller Foundation in Nairobi, Kenya, 5-8 April 2004.
Spilsbury, J., Jagwe, J., Ferris, S. and D. Luwandagga. 2002. Evaluating the market opportunities for banana and its products in the principal banana growing countries of ASARECA, Uganda report. Kampala (IITA/Foodnet).
FAO. 2006. Medium term prospects for agricultural commodities: Bananas. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y5143e/y5143e10.htm.
FAO/ITC/CTA. 2001. World Markets for Organic Fruit and Vegetables – Opportunities for Developing Countries in the Production and Export of Organic Horticultural Products. International Trade Centre, Technical Centre For Agricultural and Rural Cooperation, Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations, Rome, Italy. Online at http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/y1669e/y1669e00.htm.
Parrott, N. and F. Kalibwani. 2005. â€œOrganic Farming in Africa,â€ In The World of Organic Agriculture: Statistics and Emerging Trends 2005. Helga and Yussefi (Eds). International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), Bonn, Germany and Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Frick, Switzerland.
Parrot, N. and van Elzakker, B. 2003. Organic and like-minded movements in Africa. Development and status.- IFOAM.
UNCTAD (2008): Market information in the commodities area: Banana. http://www.unctad.org/infocomm/anglais/banana/market.htm.
Yussefi, M. 2006. â€œOrganic Farming Worldwide 2006: Overview and Main Statistics,â€ In The World of Organic Agriculture: Statistics and Emerging Trends 2006. 7th Revised Edition, Willer and Yussefi (Eds). International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), Bonn, Germany and Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Frick, Switzerland.
The use of genetic engineering has transformed agriculture, and food production and development by providing options and solutions where none existed beforeâ€”to the benefit of billions of the worldâ€™s inhabitants.
IITA and its partners have been using genetic transformation as a crop improvement tool to help produce more and better food staples. The Instituteâ€”with partners such as the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) of Uganda, Academia Sinica (Taiwan), and the African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) in Kenyaâ€”is at the forefront of research â€œdesigningâ€ a genetically modified banana that is resistant to the worst bacterial disease so farâ€”Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW). Entire banana fields can be destroyed, especially those planted to Pisang awak, a susceptible exotic variety widely grown to make banana beer.
Bananas are a major staple in East Africa produced mostly by smallholder subsistence farmers. Uganda is the worldâ€™s second leading grower with a total annual production of about 10.5 million tons. It is Africaâ€™s biggest producer and consumer of bananas and plantains.
Most growers cannot afford costly chemicals to control the many pests and diseases that affect banana cultivation. As diseases continue to spread, demand grows for new improved varieties.
Bacterial wilt caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum is threatening banana production and the livelihoods of these smallholder growers, and solutions have to be found fast before it could destabilize food security in the region.
Work on developing a GMO banana has been ongoing since BXW was first reported in 2001. The disease has been identified in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Kenya, and Tanzania, and is widespread in Uganda. It attacks almost all varieties of bananas, causing these countries an annual loss of over US$500 million. These can be reduced bunch weights or absolute yield loss or clean planting material is unobtainable for new plantations.
â€œDeveloping resistant varieties is a long-term but more sustainable way to control pests and diseases. Improving the plantâ€™s defense mechanism against BXW through genetic engineering is still the best line of defense because of its many advantages,â€ commented molecular geneticist Leena Tripathi based in IITA-Uganda, Kampala. â€œFarmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures.â€
â€œGenetic engineering offers many opportunities for improving existing elite varieties not amenable to conventional cross-breeding, such as bananas. It allows breeders to develop new varieties quickly through the introduction of cloned genes into commercial varieties.â€
Transgenic bananas possess a gene or genes that have been transferred from another plant species. The term â€œtransgenic plantsâ€ refers to plants created in a laboratory using recombinant DNA technology.
Tripathi said that the development of stable and reproducible transformation and regeneration technologies has opened new horizons in banana and plantain breeding. The development of transgenic banana and plantain has been reported by several groups, but a commercial transgenic banana variety is yet to be released.
There are no cross-fertile wild relatives in many banana-producing areas. Most edible bananas and plantains are male and female sterile. The clonal mode of propagation makes the risk of gene flow from banana to another crop species not an issue.
IITAâ€™s in vitro screening method for early evaluation of resistance to BXW uses small tissue culture-grown plantlets. This method can be used by breeders for screening Musa germplasm with larger numbers of cultivars for resistance to BXW and other bacterial diseases.
Currently, most transformation protocols for banana use cell suspensions, Tripathi said. Establishing cell suspensions is a lengthy process and cultivar dependent. At present, the major barrier in transforming East African Highland Bananas (EAHB), a cooking banana from Uganda, is the limited success in producing embryogenic cell suspension cultures from a wide range of cultivars. IITA scientists in collaboration with NARO have developed a rapid and efficient protocol using a cultivar-independent transformation system for improving Musa species including EAHB. This new technique has paved the way for the development of a transgenic banana using transgenes from sweet pepper that confer resistance against BXW.
Tripathi explains how the technology works: the ferredoxin-like amphipathic protein (pflp) and hypersensitive response-assisting protein (hrap), were isolated from the sweet pepper, Capsicum annuum. These are novel plant proteins that intensify the harpinPSS-mediated hypersensitive response (HR). These proteins have a dual function: iron depletion antibiotic action and harpin-triggered HR enhancement. The transgenes were shown to delay the hypersensitive response induced by various pathogens in nonhost plants through the release of the proteinaceous elicitor, harpinPss in various crops including dicots such as tobacco, potato, tomato, broccoli, orchids and monocots such as rice. Elicitor-induced resistance is not specific against particular pathogens, hence it is a very useful strategy.
The pflp genes encode for ferrodoxin, which exists in all organisms, and is therefore common in human diets. This protein is safe for human consumption and the environment. The pflp and hrap genes are owned by Taiwanâ€™s Academia Sinica, the patent holder. IITA has negotiated a royalty free license through the AATF for access to the pflp and hrap genes for use in the production of BXW-resistant varieties in sub-Saharan Africa.
Hundreds of transformed lines of various banana cultivars have already been generated, and are under screening for disease resistance under laboratory conditions. The most promising will be evaluated for efficacy against BXW in confined field trials under different farming systems by national partners with IITA. The transgenic lines will be tested for environmental and food safety, in compliance with target country biosafety regulations, risk assessment and management, and seed registration and release procedures. The project will also study public perceptions, consumer preferences, and the acceptability of transgenic banana in Africa to guide commercialization and wide use.
â€œWide-scale deployment of genetically modified, farmer-preferred banana varieties in African countries would succeed only with effective interinstitutional partnerships, particularly with advanced research institutions, AATF, national committees on biosafety, nongovernmental organizations, and private tissue culture companies,â€ explained Tripathi. â€œThis project will enhance the capacity of partners from the national agricultural research and extension systems in genetic transformation of banana, molecular biology, and biosafety. High-yielding BXW-resistant banana will bring greater productivity for smallholder farmers in East Africa and improved food security.â€
Grown by smallholder farmers, bananas and plantains are major food staples and two of the leading cash crops, both in the East African Great Lakes zone and the West African humid lowlands. Diverse banana cultivars are grown for a number of uses, including brewing (juice bananas), cooking and roasting, as well as sweet dessert bananas. Banana starch, flour, and chips are processed banana products whose markets are yet to be fully developed. Because of its cash crop status, farmers are more likely to adopt high-level management technologies in order to intensify production and yet sustain the natural resource base in the systems. Clearly, much progress can be realized with more profitable and sustainable banana systems.
Since the 1970s, reports of low and declining banana yields have been widespread. Some have attributed this phenomenon to constraints such as soil degradation, pests, poor crop husbandry, and drought. In this project, the hypothesis is that these constraints are, to a large extent, interlinked. Although each constraint can, on its own, potentially cause serious yield decline, the complex interactions between a number of them compound yield losses.
The overall purpose of the banana and plantain project is to enhance the performance of banana and plantain systems within smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa.
The main project objectives are:
To increase knowledge on ecosystems, social systems, and commodity chains related to banana and plantain production in
To research ways to improve profitability of banana and plantain systems in Africa
To improve the quality of banana- and plantain-based food products